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The Revolution in Water Measurement

We measure water content in soil and snow by using Cosmic Rays


CRNS stands for Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing.
Cosmic rays come from space and in contact with the Earth’s atmosphere generate a cascade of particles, including fast neutrons.
The latter have the peculiarity of interacting mainly with water molecules. When they come into contact with water in the ground or snow, part of the fast neutrons is absorbed and part is reflected back into the air, losing part of the initial energy: thus slow neutrons are born.
A large difference between the number of fast and slow neutrons implies a large amount of water and vice versa. Since fast neutrons have enough energy to penetrate inside the ground for many cm (meters in snow), the given figure is representative in depth. Since slow neutrons are distributed over large distances, it is possible to monitor the water content over vast areas, about 5 hectares at sea level, up to 30 hectares at altitude. This, in a nutshell, is CRNS technology.

Finapp probe installed in a vineyard field

Finapp: innovation at hand

Finapp has profoundly innovated the probe capable of reading cosmic neutrons. Our patent-covered improvements enable the use of CRNS technology in various applications and no longer just in academia.

  1. Real-time data.
  2. Lightweight, compact probe that can be installed anywhere
  3. Easy to use, requires no calibration and maintenance
Finapp Other CRNS probes
Real-time validated data
Remote operation
Dimensions 40x30x15 cm > 1,5m
Wight 5kg > 20Kg

The pross of Finapp probe

As simple as it may seem, measuring water is a daunting task!
Finapp is the only company in the world that can provide a measurement of soil moisture and snow water content (SWE):
1. On a large scale (1-20 hectares)
2. In depth (50 cm in soil, meters in snow)
3. With in situ real-time validation
With a single probe installed above the ground or snow, not getting in the way of normal activities.

Traditional instruments provide point-scale measurements that are not representative on a large scale but only a few tens of centimeters around the instrument. The satellite, on the other hand, cannot penetrate deeply, providing only a surface view (0-2cm).

Finapp Traditional instruments Satallite
Large scale
Real time data

It would take 100 traditional probes to get the same data that Finapp provides more easily, accurately, and inexpensively!

All data with a click

Finapp probes automatically transmit, thanks to a 2G/4G modem, data measured in the field to our Cloud where you can see graphs and tables of soil moisture and SWE.
The same data can be downloaded via API for better integration with pre-existing software.
It is also possible to connect the Finapp probe to third-party data loggers via SDI-12, RS-232 RS-485 port, or connect it via a LoRa node. Finally, it is possible to connect auxiliary air temperature/humidity sensors, rain gauges or other weather sensors via SDI12 or Digital I/O ports.
As a Backup measure, all data are also stored locally to a Micro-SD card.

Watch the video

Discover all the applications of the Finapp probe


Finapp supports precision agriculture by providing unique knowledge of soil moisture for better irrigation strategy so as to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on efficient water use and hunger eradication.

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Scientific research

By counting cosmic neutrons, muons and gamma rays all in one instrument, Finapp probes represent a versatile and innovative means in multiple areas of scientific research.

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Water Resource

The importance of quantifying the water resource stored in the snow pack is strategic for its management for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. Finapp assesses the available Water Resource through the determination of the Snow Water Equivalent.

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Environmental monitoring

Landslides, floods and fires pose a serious risk common to many parts of the World. Learn how Finapp probes help mitigate the negative impact of these agents on people, natural habitats, transportation and the economy.

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Water Leaks

Thanks to CRNS technology and innovative Finapp probes, you can pre-locate leaks in your water mains, monitoring up to 150 km per day, so you always have the complete status of your pipes under control.

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Finapp has invented a new way to measure water! 
Finapp has developed the probe capable of counting Cosmic Neutrons, radically changing the hardware, and innovating algorithms that make impactful information available to the user for decision-making.

Read the results